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英语语法:过去完成时常见的13种句型

2017-06-09 14:34

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编辑:新东方小编

  过去完成时(The Past Perfect Tense):表示过去某一时间或动作以前,已经发生或完成了的动作对过去的某一点造成的某种影响或是结果,用来指在另一个过去行动之前就已经完成了的事件。它表示动作发生的时间是“过去的过去”,侧重事情的结果。

  结构

  主语+had+动词过去分词

  ①肯定句:主语+had+动词过去分词+其他.

  ②否定句:主语+had+not+动词过去分词+其他.

  ③疑问句:Had+主语+动词过去分词+其他?

  肯定回答:Yes,主语+had.

  否定回答:No,主语+hadn't.

  ④特殊疑问句:特殊疑问词或词组+had+主语+过去分词+其他?

  ⑤被动语态:主语+had(not) +been+动词过去分词+其他.

  例句

  过去完成时常用的时间状语有:

  1. by the end of last+时间段. By the end of last term, we had learned 5000 new words.

  2. By the time sb. +动词过去式如:The bus had already left by the time I got there.

  3.By (the time of) last year ,we had built two bridges.

  大部分情况下以一般过去时did/was/were结构做比较,常见句型总结如下:

  1.“主语 +had done…, before 从句(did/was/were)”

  例如:Fortunately, the population had left the village before the volcano erupted.(幸运的是,火山喷发前人们已离开了村庄。)

  2.“主语 +had done…, when 从句(did/was/were)”

  例如:They had already put the fire out when I returned to the village.(当我返回村子时,人们已将大火扑灭。)

  3.“By the end of +名词(短语),主语 + had done…”

  例如:By the end of the day, most of the inhabitants had left their homes.(到这一天,大部分居民已离开他们的家园。)

  4.“主句(had done), before + 过去时间状语 ”

  例如:They had never seen so many of the locusts before.(他们以前从未见过如此多的蝗虫)

  I had reached the station before six o'clock.

  (六点之前我已到达车站。)

  5.“By the time + 从句(did/was/were), 主语 + had done…”

  例如:By the time we arrived, everyone had received medical care.(我们到达时,每个人已接受了医疗护理。)

  6.“用在 It /This/That was the first…time + that 从句 (had done)中”

  例如:It was the third time that he had made the same mistake. (这是他第三次犯同样的错误了。)

  7. “用在told, said, knew, heard, thought等动词后的宾语从句,表示动作发生在这些动词之前。”

  例如:She said that she had never been to Paris.(她说她从未去过巴黎。)

  8.“用在It was/had been + 一段时间 + since 从句 (had done)中”

  例如:It was ten years since we had had such a wonderful time.(十年我们都没这麽高兴了。)

  9.“用于表示与过去事实相反的if 虚拟条件句中”

  例如:If she had seen you yesterday, she would have told you the truth. (如果她昨天见过你,她已告诉你事实的真相。)

  10.“用在 wish 后的宾语从句中,表示与过去事实相反。”

  例如:I wished that he hadn't made such a mistake. (我希望他从未犯过这样的错误。)

  11.“主语 + (did/was/were), after 从句(had done)”

  例如:The earthquake happened in the daytime after people had already left home for work or school.(地震发生在白天,当时人们已离开家去上班或上学。)

  12.“用在 Hardly(scarcely, barely)…when…, No sooner…than…句型中”

  例如:Hardly had I got home when the rain poured down. (我刚到家大雨就倾盆而下。)

  No sooner had he left home than it began to rain. (他一离开家天就下起雨来。)

  13.“hope, plan, mean, expect, intend, suppose, want, think 等动词有时用过去完成时表示一个本来打算做而未做,曾经设想而未实现的事。”

  例如:They had wanted to help but could not get here in time. (他们本想来帮忙,但未及时赶到。)

  I had thought that he had died at least twenty years ago. (我原以为他至少死了十年。)

  I had intended to come over to see you, but was prevented from doing so. (我原打算过来看你,但受阻未成。)

  上文为大家总结了考试中常见的13种句型的用法,希望每位同学都能认真阅读,彻底掌握这一时态,才能在考试中使用得更加自如。

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